Turner thesis full text

Hardly is a new State or Territory formed before the same principle manifests itself again and gives rise to a further emigration; and so is it destined to go on until a physical barrier must finally obstruct its progress.

The forest falls before them as they advance, and the soil is laid bare so that you can scarce find the wherewithal to erect a shelter for the night.

frederick jackson turner the significance of the frontier in american history

The effect reached back from the frontier and affected profoundly the Atlantic coast and even the Old World. West of the War ofthe West of Clay, and Benton and Harrison, and Andrew Jackson, shut off by the Middle States and the mountains from the coast sections, had a solidarity of its own with national tendencies.

Criticism of turners frontier thesis

Complex society is precipitated by the wilderness into a kind of primitive organization based on the family. In the case of most nations, however, the development has occurred in a limited area; and if the nation has expanded, it has met other growing peoples whom it has conquered. The Mississippi River region was the scene of typical frontier settlements. The great merit of Turnerism, for all its elliptical and exasperating vagueness, was to be open-ended. And now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history. Movement has been its dominant fact, and, unless this training has no effect upon a people, the American energy will continually demand a wider field for its exercise. See also L. But the democracy born of free land, strong in selfishness and individualism, intolerant of administrative experience and education, and pressing individual liberty beyond its proper bounds, has its dangers as well as its benefits. Earlier yet it had been a wheat area, and still earlier the "range" had attracted the cattleherder. And let me tell the gentleman from Albemarle Mr.

We shall consider the whole frontier belt including the Indian country and the outer margin of the "settled area " of the census reports. Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West.

turner thesis essay

The men of the frontier had closer resemblances to the Middle region than to either of the other sections. Norton and Company, However, in this instance Abernethy is partly responsible.

The frontier reached by the Pacific Railroad, surveyed into rectangles, guarded by the United States Army, and recruited by the daily immigrant ship, moves forward at a swifter pace and in a different way than the frontier reached by the birch canoe or the pack horse.

the closing of the frontier

The unequal rate of advance compels us to distinguish the frontier into the trader's frontier, the rancher's frontier, or the miner's frontier, and the farmer's frontier.

This relatively brief passage on Jackson not only is the only one they quote but also is seriously deficient as a summary of Turner's perceptions. It is quite immaterial whether he ever becomes the [ 20 ]owner of the soil.

The same conditions aid in explaining the difficulty of instituting a strong government in the period of the confederacy.

Frontier thesis for dummies

The fact is, that here is a new product that is American. In this connection may be mentioned the importance of the frontier, from that day to this, as a military training school, keeping alive the power of resistance to aggression, and developing the stalwart and rugged qualities of the frontiersman. Pierson, Benjamin F. Although this particular criticism of Turner is not a new one. It represented that composite nationality which the contemporary United States exhibits, that juxtaposition of non-English groups, occupying a valley or a little settlement, and presenting reflections of the map of Europe in their variety. Thus it became the typically American region. But the English Government was not alone in its desire to limit the advance of the frontier and guide its destinies. At the Atlantic frontier one can study the germs of processes repeated at each successive frontier. Significantly, as Rodman Paul points out in his Foreword, among the characteristics of this superb collection of essays that ''deserve special comment" is "the continuing towering presence of Frederick Jackson Turner" as well as Herbert Eugene Bolton and Walter Prescott Webb. Loria, [] the Italian economist, has urged the study of colonial life as an aid in understanding the stages of European development, affirming that colonial settlement is for economic science what the mountain is for geology, bringing to light primitive stratifications. His son was among the earliest trappers in the passes of the Rocky Mountains, and his party are said to have been the first to camp on the present site of Denver. Or, clearing the history of your visits to the site.

The records of the various New England colonies show how steadily exploration was carried into the wilderness by this trade.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Frontier in American History, by Frederick Jackson Turner